Nov 10, 2010

Family Muscidae..Genus Stomoxy (Stable Flies)

  • Also called as stable flies
  • These are biting house flies. Bite of the fly is very painful.
  • These are important vectors of many helminthes and protozoan infections.
  • Specie important is S. Calcitran.
  • Size if 5.5-7.5mm and color of the fly is grey.
  • Four dark, longitudinal stripes are present on the thorax.
  • Mouth (proboscis) is projected forward.
  • Mouth part is composed of labium, labrum and hypopharynx which carries salivary duct and delivers anticoagulant into host tissue.
Life Cycle
  • Adult female lay eggs on decaying organic matter or rotting material or wheat straw, rice straw and hay contaminated by urine and feces of animals.
  • Eggs are laid in batches. Each batch contains 25-50 eggs.
  • Egg hatch in 1-4 days depending upon the environmental conditions.
  • From the egg, larva develops. Larva maturation takes place in 6-30 days depending upon the environmental conditions. 27-29°C is the optimum temperature for larval development.
  • From the larva, pupa emerges.
  • From the pupa, adult emerges.
  • It requires 12-60 days for completion of life cycle (egg-adult).
  • Adult requires several blood meals before ovary matures and egg laying starts.
Pathogenic Effects
  • Mouth parts swing downward and penetration of skin is achieved by rasping effect of teeth which lies at the end of the labium.
  • It is very painful bite for animal.
  • 3 minutes are required for a complete blood meal.
  • Feeding is often interrupted thus allowing pathogenic organisms to enter into the body of flies and multiply there.
  • Same fly when sucking blood from another animal, transmits the pathogenic organism into the other animal.
  • Habronema (nematodal infection) and Trypnosomiasis (protozoan infection) are transmitted by these flies.
  • Creates restlessness for the animal and human beings
  • It causes production losses of 20-25 %.
  • Prefer strong sunlight to live and present in abundance on building and farm.
Treatment & Control
  • Provide good hygienic conditions.
  • Destruction of breeding places is very much important.
  • Proper drainage of the area is very important.
  • Use insecticides;
Organo Chlorine…… DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane/ benzene hexachloride
Organic phosphate…. Trichlorofen, neguvan, cumafex, neocidal, diazinon and asuntal
Synthetic pyrethroid...Cypermethrine and Ecoflee
  • Use of flies repellant sprays such as spoton and sporon.
  • Valuable animals must have ear tags, nose ring and tail bands impregnated with insecticides.
  • Lower the animal movement during maximum activity of flies.


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