There are 4 types of energy sources used in poultry and livestock feeding;
- Cereals (Maize, Sorghum, Wheat, Rice and Millets)
- Cereal Byproducts (wheat bran, rice bran, maize bran and rice polishing etc)
- Industrial Waste (Molasses)
- Fats and Oils (animal and vegetable oils)
- It is principle energy source for poultry.
- It contains highest amount of energy among cereal Grains.
- M.E = 3340-3400 kcal/kg.
- C.P = 9.8%
- Whenever maize is stored, moisture level should be low to avoid fungal attack. So, aflatoxins are its restriction. Moisture level should be 12-15%.
- Highly palatable and excellent source of linoleic acid. Xanthophylls are higher in yellow maize.
- Inclusion rate = 10-50%.
Maize bran is also excellent source of linoleic acid having C.P 10%. It is mostly used for buffalo feed. Energy value is 1300kcal/kg.
- Good source of energy next to maize and sorghum.
- M.E = 3400-3500 kcal/kg. Variable protein is 11-14%.
- It is principally used for humans.
- Wheat bran is the coarse outer covering of wheat kernel separated from wheat during milling.
- M.E = 1300 kcal/kg
- C.P = 15%.
- It is laxative in nature due to high fiber content.
- M.E = 3200 kcal/kg
- C.P = 8-10%.
- Narowal Rice is famous
- These include rice bran, rice polishing, rice tips and rice broken (totta).
- High oil contents (17%) in rice polishing.
- Low oil contents (1-2%) in rice bran.
- Rice tips and rice polishing have C.P = 8% and M.E = 3400-3500kcal/kg.
- Inclusion Rate = 20-50% for rice tips and 10-15% for rice polish.
- Also called milo or jowar
- M.E = 3350 kcal/kg.
- Higher protein than maize (10%)
- Light and dark varieties
- Availability of amino acids is low.
- Tennins is its restriction which is removed by alkalis.
- Inclusion rate = 5-10%.
- Also called Bajra. These are small grains.
- Can be used in substitution of wheat.
- M.E = 2898 kcal/kg.
- C.P = 11.6%.
- Inclusion rate = 30-60%.
- It is a by product of the sugar refining industry.
- Both can and beet molasses contain 46-48% sugar.
- Increase palatability and decrease dutiness of feed.
- C.P = 3%.
- M.E = 1962kcal/kg.
- Inclusion rate = less than 5%.
- Very high potassium content is its restriction.