Meat Science is the culmination of the whole production system. Goal of the animal agriculture is the production of the food and fiber.
History of Meat Industry:
- Food gathering became food cultivation about 10,000 to 16,000 years ago.
- With the advent of fire and preservation methods, meat processing was established (1000 BC)
- Cattle, hogs and sheep are not native to the Americas
- Animals were brought to North America by explorers such as Columbus and Cortez
- Early preservation of meat was done by "packing" it in barrels with salt ---> "meat packing industry" 1635.
- 1641, William Pynchon in Springfield,
- Massachusetts was first meat packer exporting salt pork
- Uncle Sam – meat packer that supplied meat to army soldiers during the war of 1812
- The oldest meat packing company still in business is believed to be the William Underwood Company of Westwood, MA.
Where was the meat industry originally located?
- Chicago and later Cincinnati
- Chicago’s first livestock markets were taverns that provided stock pens for dealers who brought cattle to the city to trade.
- Chicago’s first recorded slaughterhouse began operations in 1827.
- First Federal Meat Inspection laws were enacted in the 1880’s.
- The first meat inspection law was passed in 1891 authorizing voluntary inspection of livestock and meat intended for interstate and foreign commerce
Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” (Book about working conditions in the meat industry).
- Meat Inspection Act 1906
- Upton Sinclair’s book the Jungle brought into focus the practices of the day.
- This created the environment which resulted in the Meat Inspection act
- Meat Inspection act requires ante- and post-mortem inspection as well as product inspection
- The Nineties brought massive changes in the Inspection system. 1996, 1998 HACCP.
- The meat and poultry industry is the largest component of both the nation’s agricultural sector and food marketing industry.
- Employ nearly half a million people.
- Contributes over $90 billion in annual sales to the GNP.
- Belgian blue
- Per capita consumption below 10 kg /year in developing countries
- More than 2 billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals
- 20 g animal protein/capita/day or 7.3 kg per capita/year
- This can be achieved by an annual consumption of 33 kg lean meat or 45 kg fish or 60 kg eggs or 230 kg milk, respectively.
Meat Production in Pakistan – Present Status:
- Pakistan is blessed with large population of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats, which are the main source of beef and mutton in the country.
- The annual availability of protein (both from vegetable and animal source is 71.4 g per capita per day, against the recommended daily allowance of 60 g /day.
- The share of animal protein is below the required level and is shorter by 16%.
- The availability of meat among various socio-economic groups as well as urban versus rural communities is unequal.
- In spite of large supply of meat for human consumption, the quality of meat is very low
- There is no specific beef or mutton breed in the country and most of them are dual purpose
- Usually the old and spent animals, which have very low quality go for slaughter
- The hygienic condition of slaughter houses and that of meat is very poor and do not meet the international standards
- In the country about 6.1 million male calves are available annually
- These animals are usually weak and emaciated and go for slaughter at weight of 100-150 kg
- These have great potential for quality meat production and if probably fed, they can yield body weight of 200-250 kg increasing the meat production by 150%.
Livestock in National Economy:
(Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2008-09)
Growth in Key Sectors:
Major constraints hindering Meat Production:
- Shortage of economical feed is main big problem (fodder 40%; concentrate feed is deficient by 80%) – small ruminants (draught)
- Improper marketing system – through bargain and not by quality or by weight
- Lack of specific meat breeds in the country
- Lack of proper facilities in slaughter houses – water supply, drainage, flaying, cutting, processing, chilling, efficient use of by products, value addition, grading, packing.
- In an effort to enhance milk and meat production, the GOP recently launched a comprehensive
- livestock development project with Asian Development Bank assistance.
- In addition, the GOP has broadened extension and artificial breeding services, rationalized animal health services, improved slaughterhouses, and introduced high yielding fodder varieties.
- It is a major and rapidly expanding export sector
- Exports grew at an annual compound rate of 21 percent over a recent five-year period, boosted by a range of government incentives.
- The leather and leather products industry is labor-intensive (directly employing more than 200,000 workers) and there are over 400 tanneries in Pakistan.
- The recent growth of the industry is due in large part to its successful progression from the export of raw hides and skins and semi-processed leather towards high value-added finished leathers and leather products (including leather jackets, gloves, footwear, and sporting goods).
- The tanning sector is concentrated in the Punjab, where units process primarily buffalo and cow hides
- Tanneries in the Sindh process primarily goat and sheep skins.
- The local market for leather is limited, and about 80 percent of production is exported.
- More sophisticated machinery and productivity increases can be expected to further boost exports.
- Pollution is a serious problem for this industry.