It contains both biting and non biting flies.
Bite of flies is very painful.
Feed on decaying organic matter and wound secretions.
They cause restlessness for human being and animals.
- Musca (House Flies)
- Hydrotaea (Head Flies)
- Haematodia (Horn Flies)
- Stomozy (stable flies)
- Glossina (Tse Tse flies)
This genus contains two important species;
- Musca Domestica (house flies)
- Musca autumnalis(face flies)
- Size is 5.5-7.5 mm. color variable from light to dark grey.
- Poor longitudinal stripes on the thorax
- Color of abdomen is grey, light or dark marking.
- Complex mouth part is present which is adopted for sponging.
- Mouth part is composed of Labrum, Labium, Maxilla, Mandibles and Hypopharynx. Maxilla and Mandibles are rudimentary.
- During feeding, mouth part is prominent.
- A pair of wings having veins is present. Veins are very helpful is differentiating different species of flies.
- Presence of sticky hair on pad like structures is the most important morphological feature which lies at the end of claw leg. Germs stick with this hair.
- Adult flies lay egg on decaying organic matter or rotting material.
- Color of eggs is creamy white and banana shaped.
- Eggs are in badges, each badge is having 100 eggs.
- Egg hatch within 12-24 hours depending upon the environmental conditions.
- Egg hatch and white, segmented and cylindrical larva develop.
- There are 3 larval instars. L1-L2-L3.
- Development of larva takes place in 3-7 days. Anterior end of larva is pointed and having a pair of hooks. Posterior end of larva is blunt and having respiratory spiracles.
- Larva move to dry area and pupa develop. Color of the pupa is brown or black and is barrel shaped.
- From pupa adult emerges. Development from egg to adult takes 3-26 days.
- It causes restlessness to livestock and human beings.
- Flies are important vectors of many bacterial and parasitic infections. These cause mastitis by transmitting bacteria to healthy animals. It also transmits Anthrax Spores.
- Habronema(parasite) and Relletenia (worm) eggs are also transmitted by flies.
- Parafilaria bovicola is also transmitted by these flies.
- M. autumnalis feed on lacrimal and nasal secretions and are responsible for transmission of eye worm (thelazia) which causes Pink eye disease. It also causes mastitis and Infectious Bovine Conjunctivitis (IBC).
Treatment and Control:
- Provide good hygienic conditions.
- Destruction of breeding places is very much important.
- Proper drainage of the area is very important.
- Use insecticides;
- Organo Chlorine…… DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane/ benzene hexachloride.
- Organic phosphate…. Trichlorofen, neguvan, cumafex, neocidal, diazinon and asuntal.
- Synthetic pyrethroid...Cypermethrine and Ecoflee.
- Use of flies repellant sprays such as spoton and pouron.
- Valuable animals must have ear tags, nose ring and tail bands impregnated with insecticides.
- Lower the animal movement during maximum activity of flies.