Hydrotaea Irritans is the only important specie. Commonly called Head flies
It contains non-obligatory and non-biting flies.
These are important vector of many diseases.
- Size is 5.5-7.5 mm.
- Thorax is having longitudinal stripes.
- Abdomen color is olive green.
- Yellow, orange coloration at the base of the wing
- Mouth parts are adapted for sponging and composed of Labella (labium), labrum, maxilla, mandibles and hypopharynx.
- Labium is having sharp teeths. Maxilla and mandibles are rudimentary.
- Hypopharynx carries salivary duct delivers anticoagulant to host tissues.
- Adult flies are active during midsummer. These flies prefer to live in still conditions. These live in woodland and plantation.
- Adult lay eggs on decaying organic matter or rotting material.
- Egg hatch and larva develop. Maturation of larva takes place during autumn season.
- Larva undergoes hibernation. With the onset of spring season, larva become active and pupa develop.
- With the onset of summer, adult emerges from pupa.
- There is only one generation in a year.
- Flies are abundant around the base of the horn in the form of the clusters.
- As these flies feed on lacrimal secretions, wound secretions.
- Labella is adapted for sponging and having sharp teeth which create wound due to rasping effect of teeth. This condition sometimes cause extension of wound and resemble blow flies myiasis. This also led to secondary bacterial infections.
- Flies are also abundant on ventral potion of abedomen and udder.
- Flies cause summer mastitis by transmitting Streptococcus disgalactie and corynebacterium pyogenes.
- All of the drugs used in genus musca apply here too.
- Sings of toxicity include shivering, sweating, salivation, and diarrhea. Antidote is atropine sulfate.
- Medicated water should not fall on ear, eyes, nose and mouth. So, use muzzle when injecting.
- Use of flies’ repellant (sporon, spoton)
- Use ear tags, nose rings and tail bands impregnated with insecticides.
- Provide good hygienic conditions.
- Proper drainage of marshy areas is very important.